KLEIN, PHILIP (1890– ), U.S. social worker. Klein was born in Hungary and immigrated to the United States in 1902. After receiving his training in social sciences in New York City, he directed many large-scale research projects, including a national survey of unemployment (1921–22) and a social study of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (1938). From 1923 to 1926 he served as the executive director of the American Association of Social Workers, and from 1927 to 1953 he was first director of research and later professor of research, New York School of Social Work. He was research director, White House Conference on Children in a Democracy (1939–40). Klein served as consultant to the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee in planning the Paul Baerwald School of Social Work, Versailles, France (1948–50), and on social work manpower needs in Israel (1954–56). He was a United Nations expert assigned to the Israel Ministry of Social Welfare in 1959. Later he was a consultant to the Department of Welfare of the State of Pennsylvania. During the 1930s and 1940s he led a minority group of social work educators who favored greater emphasis on the social action functions of social workers rather than the clinical or treatment emphasis. Klein proposed broad governmental social welfare programs and wrote widely on the subject. His works include Prison Methods in New York State (1920); The Burden of Unemployment (1923); articles in the Encyclopaedia of Social Sciences (1930–35); A Social Study of Pittsburgh (1938); Next Steps in Dealing with Delinquency (1945); and From Philanthropy to Social Welfare (1968). -ADD. BIBLIOGRAPHY: C. Kasius (ed.), New Directions in Social Work (1954). (Jacob Neusner) KLEIN, RALPH KLEIN, RALPH (1931– ), Israeli basketball coach. Klein was the first coach to lead an Israeli basketball team, Macabbi Tel Aviv, to a European championship. Klein, a German-born Holocaust survivor, arrived in Israel after the end of the war. During the 1960s he played for Maccabi Tel Aviv under Coach yehoshua rosen . After his retirement, he became Rosen's assistant coach and then head coach in 1969. He took the team to 11 national championships and 10 national cups. The summit of his career came in 1977, when Maccabi Tel Aviv won the European championship, defeating Italy's Mobil Girgi 78–77 in the final. On the way there Maccabi also defeated CSKA Moskow in a historic match played on a neutral court in view of the Soviet Union's break with Israel after the Six-Day War. Klein led the team to another three European finals. As coach of Israel's national team as well, he took it to a second-place finish in the European championships of 1979. In 1984, as coach of the German national team, he appeared at the Olympic Games in Los Angeles. From 1973 he taught basketball coaching at the Wingate Institute. On Israel's 50th anniversary he was awarded the Jubilee Prize for his achievements, and in 2004 was selected as a torch bearer on Independence Day. Although in his seventies and fighting cancer, he coached a girls team that won a school championship in 2004. In 2006 he received the Israel Prize. -WEBSITES: www.most.gov.il ; www.tzahevet.co.il . (Shaked Gilboa (2nd ed.)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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